OneSearch is the State Library's online catalogue and allows individuals to search all of State Library's collections plus millions of journal articles and ebooks at the same time. For the language researcher it provides easy access to the State Library's collections of Original Materials, Published Materials, Audio-Visual and Digital items relating to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, languages and histories. There are several tips for using One Search at the webpage and community members are encouraged to use a range of search terms to identify collection items. Here are some additional tips for language research: use the language name as a search term, e.g. 'gugu yalanji' try different spellings, e.g. 'kuku yalanji' 'gugu yalandji' also use alternatives/variations 'Gugu-Yalandyi' 'Gugu-Jalandji' 'Gugu-Yalandji' 'Gugu-Yalanji' 'Koko-yalanji' use a place/locality as a search term, e.g. 'Mossman' 'Wujal Wujal' Search results can also be refined to focus on specific details, including the type of resource, the topic/subject, age, etc. The above screenshot image indicates how a search on 'yalanji' can be refined to focus on specific materials or items within the collection. These are also hyper-linked, so clicking on the text will bring up a new set of search results. To assist language research, State Library Collection items relating to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people are gradually being ‘tagged’ with AIATSIS geographical and language codes in the Subject Description/Details. These may also appear in the 'Refine my results' section as shown above. The AIATSIS Geographical and Language Codes are also used as the basis for language 'tags' to assist community members, language workers and others undertaking research into Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. These 'tags' identify the AIATSIS Language Code, e.g. Kuku Yalanji = AIATSIS Language Code Y78. There are 41 items relating to the 'aiatsis language code y78' tag - this addresses the issue of different spellings of Kuku Yalanji. Additional language tags may relate to the locality or identify the most commonly accepted way of spelling the language; for example, there is also a 'kuku yalanji' tag, while other tags may identify a location, e.g. 'Wujal Wujal' or 'Bloomfield River'. The above image identifies a selection of 'tags' - the number in parentheses indicates the number of items in the State Library collections. It should be noted that not all Queensland Indigenous Languages were researched or documented and there may be minimal available material, especially in State Library collections. Over 2,000 items within the collections have been identified as having content relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. The above wordle image gives an insight into the number and range of popular language tags used on One Search. When an item in the collection has several languages in the content, such as a linguistic survey, all languages are identified within the 'tags'. As a result over 350 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages are represented in the State Library collections. Language researchers who have a Library Membership Card can also create their own 'tags' to identify useful research materials as well as flag it for future reference and return visits. I hope this post is useful for identifying, accessing, documenting and researching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages at the State Library. Desmond Crump Indigenous Languages Researcher, Queensland Memory State Library of Queensland Indigenous Languages Webpages State Library Weblinks: One Search, the Library catalogue One Search - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) One Search Catalogue - Tags State Library Membership
On the 11th December, 1920, in front of a large gathering, General Sir T W Glasgow unveiled the Goombungee War Memorial, a marvellous marble and sandstone structure costing 300 pounds raised by the local townsfolk. "There were ritual proceedings, with prayers, and hymns, and a bugler played the 'Last Post'. All the names of the fallen soldiers were read out, and many people become emotionally moved. At the back of the crowd stood a dark lady - either an Aborigine or of Aboriginal descent. Her son had also been killed, and she stood 'crying her eyes out' the whole time. She was all alone, but not one person sought to offer her comfort or to bring her forward into the throng. She was, in effect, ostracised. Mrs Parlour said she felt sorry for the poor lady then, but did not go forward out of childish shyness. None of the 'grown-ups' did either. C. G. Martyn was the dead soldiers name." These recollections are from Mrs Eileen Parlour who was born in the Goombungee District in 1909 - she recounted this story to Gabrielle Uren in 1976 as part of a publication entitled "Darling Downs Studies" edited by Maurice French. The Aboriginal mother was Rose Martyn (nee Conlon) and her soldier son was Private Charles George Martyn (Service Number 5959). Charles was born in Thargomindah about 1894 and enlisted for WW1 at Toowoomba on 11th February 1916 and was admitted into the 16th Reinforcements for 26th Battalion. The photograph above is from the Australian War Memorial and shows the group at Enoggera - Private Charles Martyn is circled in the middle. Following basic training at Lytton Camp, Private C G Martyn embarked on the troopship 'Boonah' on 21 October 1916. Following a bout of mumps shortly after his arrival in Plymouth, Charles rejoined his unit in France during April 1917. In the early hours of 2oth September 1917, two Australian Divisions lead an assault near the Belgian town of Ypres - this battle was to become known as the Battle of Menin Road. The two Australian Divisions sustained 5,013 casualties in the action - Private Charles George Martyn was one of these. Pte Martyn's Section Leader was Corporal Jim Montgomery (Service Number 3854), also of Goombungee. Cpl Montgomery wrote to Mrs Rose Martyn advising that her son was given the best possible burial under the conditions of battle and would ensure that his personal effects would be sent home to the correct address. Sadly, Jim Montgomery was also killed in action the following year at Villers-Bretonneux in France. Charles George Martyn's name appears on the Honour Roll of the Goombungee War Memorial along with 28 other names of the local fallen from WW1. Pte C G Martyn's name is also commemorated with a headstone at the Hooge Crater Cemetery, Passchendaele in Belgium. References: J 940.40994 OFF Bean, C. E. W. (1981) The Official history of Australia in the war of 1914-1918. J994.33 DAR French, M. (1978) Darling Downs Studies: Papers in the history and geography of the Darling Downs. JOL Negative 44398: Troopship HMAT Boonah departing from Brisbane during World War One, 1916. JOL Negative 194810: After the battle on the Menin Road, Belgium, 1917. AWM Photograph P05037.001: Group portrait of the 16th Reinforcements, 26th Battalion. Websites: Australian War Memorial (AWM): www.awm.gov.au National Archives of Australia (NAA) Record Search: B2455, MARTYN Charles George Queensland War Memorial Register: http://www.qldwarmemorials.com.au/pages/home.aspx
The Transforming Tindale exhibition (6 September - 9 December 2012) highlighted some of the many stories behind photographs taken during Norman Tindale's anthropological expedition of 1938-1940. Currently the exhibition is undertaking a regional tour, so I thought it was timely to revisit the original post from the JOL Blog to highlight the importance of Tindale's materials and how they can support language research. Transforming Tindale, State Library of Queensland. Tindale's other major work involved the mapping and distribution of Aboriginal people and their languages - it was a lifetime project that commenced in the 1920's and finally published in 1974 as Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits and proper names. This research was quite a monumental task as Tindale explored the idea that Aboriginal people did not wander aimlessly but had cultural and familial connections to areas of land and that each group had a 'tribal boundary'. Norman Tindale's 'Aboriginal Tribes of Australia' publication. The full Tindale Collection is housed in the South Australian Museum and comprises journals, papers, sound and film recordings, drawings, maps, photographs, vocabularies and personal correspondence. The State Library of Queensland has obtained copies of the genealogical materials collected from the Queensland communities of Yarrabah, Cherbourg, Mona Mona, Palm Island, Woorabinda, Bentinck Island, Doomadgee and Mornington Island, as well as two northern New South Wales communities at Boggabilla and Woodenbong. In my role and work with communities, there is great interest in the language materials that Tindale collected during his work as well as the language boundaries he compiled into two maps, both of which are held at the State Library: Map showing the distribution of the Aboriginal Tribes of Australia [RBM 804 1940 06250 E] published in 1940 and a more comprehensive version Tribal Boundaries in Aboriginal Australia [MAPSL 804 1974 02500 E] published in 1974 and commonly referred to as the 'Tindale Map'. While much of this work is open to critical analysis and there are discrepancies in the boundaries, community language workers often refer to the Tindale Map as a good starting point when identifying the languages of a region and gaining an insight into what research has previously taken place. An important piece of information for language research is the Community Sheet which highlights the family connections of individuals that Tindale interviewed; in addition, Tindale would note the location and language grouping of key individuals in the extended family trees. Tindale also had a habit of making notes regarding language and culture directly onto the Community Sheet - this information adds to the language revival process in a community. Extract from Woorabinda Community Sheet No. 44 The image above is an extract from Tindale's Woorabinda Sheet 44 which features several families from South-West Queensland, notably Taroom, Roma and Mitchell districts. The transcript reads as follows: ‘Ji:man [Yiman] tribe extends from Theodore and Camboon West of the Ranges as far as Taroom and Wandoan.' This information provides an insight into the Yiman people at the time of contact; the Hornet Bank and Cullin-la-ringo massacres changed the cultural landscape of the region with very little language documented. A preliminary language mapping exercise of the Tindale Woorabinda Sheets has identified 72 languages present at Woorabinda in 1938, when Tindale and Birdsell visited the community; a further 15-20 languages are not clearly identified within the documents. During the second World War, people from Hope Vale Community were sent to Woorabinda, bringing with them their languages of Far North Queensland, including Gugu Yimithirr which is still spoken at Woorabinda! This information supplements linguistic surveys undertaken during the 1950-60's and allows researchers to build a comprehensive language profile of the community. There is an ongoing research project involving the University of Queensland and the Woorabinda community, including the Indigenous Knowledge Centre, which has a focus on 'language mapping'. The State Library has provided support to the project and is looking forward to outcomes of this important work. For further details on the Tindale Community Sheets, visit the State Library's Tindale Genealogical Collection. Desmond Crump Indigenous Languages Researcher, Queensland Memory State Library of Queensland Indigenous Languages webpages References and Further Reading Q 994.0049915 tin Tindale, N. B. (1974) Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits and proper names. Australian National University Press: Canberra. MAPSL 804 1974 02500 E Tribal Boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. RBM 804 1940 06250 E Map showing the distribution of the Aboriginal Tribes of Australia.
State Library of Queensland's collections contain a wide range of material about Queensland locations. Many of the items promote these places as tourist destinations, illustrating aspects of the Queensland tourism industry from as early as the 1920s, such as the Queensland Rail Sunshine Route. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqXQIn9IRf8 Listen to Queensland historians Professor Peter Spearritt from The University of Queensland and Andrew Moritz from the Workshops Rail Museum, in conversation with Ian Townsend from ABC Radio National, as they highlight the way in which place has been documented in Queensland. Further reading A Tourist's Paradise, Ready For A Holiday Visit Queensland Places - a series of article written by SLQ's Brian Randall
State Library often gets requests about Aboriginal words for particular everyday objects; or a request for an Aboriginal name for a room, building, etc. For example, a client may be writing a children's story and sends an inquiry such as "what is the local word for 'wild duck' in Kamilaroi?" Thanks to having Ridley's (1875) Kamilaroi and Other Australian Languages text in our collection, we can find the word for them. But this may not always be that easy or efficient, so State Library is gradually adding wordlists online for everyday words in a number of Queensland Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages. Animals is a popular request, so we have put together a wordlist from Brisbane area languages that will also be incorporated into a language activity during NAIDOC Week at Musgrave Park's Family Day (South Brisbane). There are already a number of languages featured in the Gamburu Gamu Biyu chart which is available in selected Public Libraries and IKCs as well as corresponding online wordlists. The first set of words will feature more parts of the body words from South-East Queensland and be extended to include other Queensland languages. These selections of words can then be used for resources such as flash cards in schools or communities as well as provide basic language content for language activities such as "Heads, Shoulders, Knees and Toes" and "Hokey Pokey". Several IKCs have already built upon these body charts creating their own teaching/learning resources for use in their communities. Other themes may include animals, plants, family names, place-names, etc. State Library may also explore the idea of simple sentences and phrases to extend the conversation and build upon the 'say g'day' initiative. We also encourage community groups, language workers, IKCs, etc. to add to these lists and share with communities and record language words and phrases to add to the language knowledge of State Library collections. Further Information The following selection of items from the State Library collections have word lists from Queensland's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. GSD 499.15 2006 Gudjal language pocket dictionary: Gudjal to English and English to Gudjal : A wordlist of the Gudjal language as spoken by the Gudjal people from the Mt Garnet, Cahsmere and Herbert areas and upper Clark and east to Charters Towers, Mount Sturgeon, Mount Emu Plains, Lolworth and Reedy Springs. Q 994.38 CAM Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. P499.1503 yuw Yuwaalaraay/Gamilaraay wordlist. 499.15 2004 Dictionary of the Butchulla language. G 499.15 1997 Lardil dictionary: a vocabulary of the language of the Lardil people, Mornington Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland : with English-Lardil finder list. JUVQ 499.15 PIT Pitta Pitta : pictorial dictionary. HCF 499.15 CON Languages of the Condamine. Q499.15 KUK Kuku-Yalanji dictionary. Q499.1503 RAY Dictionary of Torres Strait languages. G 499.15 1986 Dictionary and source book of the Wik-Mungkan language. FILM 0714 Reports to the Commissioner of Police and others, on Queensland aboriginal peoples 1898-1903. OM65-58 William Hanlon Papers Undated. REFJ 499.15 wat “Vocabularies of four representative tribes of South Eastern Queensland”; supplement to the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia (Queensland), No. 34, Vol XLVIII. [Available online via SLQ] OM64-17 Archibald Meston Papers. [Available online via SLQ] State Library webpages State Library Indigenous Languages Resources - Word lists webpage: www.slq.qld.gov.au/resources/atsi/languages/word-lists State Library Indigenous languages Resources - Body Chart word lists Gamburu Gamu Biyu: www.slq.qld.gov.au/resources/atsi/languages/resources External Websites ABC Open What's your story: Welcome to Warrgamay Country AIATSIS Online Exhibition: Collectors of Words The Ndadjoni (Far North Queensland): Ngadjon Words Yugambeh Museum: Language word lists Yuwaalaraay Language Program: Yuwaalaraay Gaay Gamilaraay Garay
I thought I would revisit this resource as a tool for language research - it is an excellent starting point for researching languages at the State Library of Queensland. State Library has developed an online-interactive resource to assist language workers and community members. The Indigenous Languages Map of Queensland is a research tool which identifies items in State Library collections relating to Queensland's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. Screenshot of Indigenous Languages Map Using a Google Maps platform, languages can be researched via the map by identifying locations and clicking on the respective marker. This brings up a summary overview of the language/s related to that particular area; information may include other names/spellings for the language, dialects as well as locations for the language. Yidinji Language Marker. It also includes the AIATSIS Language Code which is hyper-linked to items in the collection. The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) have developed codes for languages and geographical locations - these have also been adopted by collecting institutions such as State Library of Queensland to make it easier to describe and identify items. Bibliographical/Reference details for 'Borobi and his friends: lets learn Yugambeh'. The State Library of Queensland has incorporated these language and geographical codes into Subject Descriptions within the One Search Library Catalogue; in addition 'tags' have been developed based on these codes. Yugambeh Language Marker. For example, the Yugambeh language marker includes the AIATSIS Language Code E17 which links to 31 items in the State Library collections as well as the AIATSIS Geographical Place Name code SG56-15 which links to 26 items. Collection items for Yugambeh language. Community members, language workers and others are encouraged to develop their own 'tags' to identify language materials within the State Library collections. For example, popular 'tags' include names of particular languages - 'Gungarri', 'Kamilaroi', 'Jagera', 'Djabugay', 'Meriam Mir', etc. while other generic 'tags' include 'language revival', 'indigenous languages education' and 'central qld aboriginal history'. Example of 'tags' used in One Search. Researchers can also use the list of language names below the map - these open up the language markers on the map and represent another path to locating resources in the collection. Indigenous Languages Map - Language Names. This resource is a prototype that will be further developed to include links to community-based resources such as items held in Indigenous Language Centres, Museums and other collecting institutions. Community members, language workers and other researchers are also encouraged to provide input into the map and advise State Library of any errors or other discrepancies. Note: The map and language locations are indicative only and should not be used for other purposes such as Native Title; the purpose of this resource is to link community language researchers to items within State Library collections. Language names and spellings are based on the AUSTLANG database. Des Crump - Indigenous Languages Researcher, State Library of Queensland